Higher Education

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Higher education


What is higher education[1]

  Higher EducationIt refers to professional education based on general education to cultivate all kinds of studentsSpecialized personnelbytarget。 The training levels of higher education in China include junior college education, undergraduate education andGraduate education; The training forms include full-time, part-time and part-time higher education; There are comprehensive universities, single subject universitiesShort term UniversityEtc; There are state-run, local and private colleges and universities.

The development history of higher education can be traced back to universities in the middle ages. Later, it has experienced development, mainly the continuous development of universities in Britain, Germany and the United Statestransformation, it has formed three functions of Higher Education: cultivating specialized talents; Scientific research; Serve the society. Since the reform and opening up, China's higher education has made great progress, and remarkable achievements have been made in the reform. A socialist higher education system with basically complete levels, forms and disciplines has been initially formed to meet the needs of national economic construction and social development. A large number of senior professionals have been trained for socialist modernization It has played an important role in scientific and technological progress and social development.

Types of colleges and universities in Higher Education

The National Education Development Research Center divides China's colleges and universities into four types.

(1) Research University. The obvious feature is that the discipline is highly comprehensive, the number of doctoral degrees awarded each year is large, and the level of talents trained is undergraduate and above, which meets the needs of high-level talentsresearch-type professionals And research achievementsdemand。 Graduate students account for at least 20% ~ 25%, and each school grants at least 50 doctoral degrees every year.

(2) Teaching and research university. The teaching level of such universities is mainly undergraduate and master students. Some professional majors with strong industry can recruit some doctoral students, but do not train junior college students.

(3) Teaching oriented undergraduate colleges. The main body of such schools is undergraduate teaching, and there are a small number of graduate or junior college students under special circumstances.

(4) Colleges and vocational colleges. Such schools reflect the most flexible part of higher education in school and specialty setting, mainly to meet the needs of local economic construction and social developmentneed

Structure of Higher Education

  1. Structural diversification

Higher education is developing in the direction of diversification, from a single structure to a variety of structures, which is one of the important trends of higher education reform in the world. Modern economic development puts forward new requirements for the reform of higher education. The demand for talents in various countries is increasing day by day. It needs not only senior technical talents and management talents, but also a large number of intermediate technical talents. This requires that higher education must establish a reasonable system to meet the needs of modern economic developmentTalent structure, reform the ivory tower of traditional higher educationstructure, realize the diversification of educational structure types. This is embodied in various forms of running schools. In addition to expanding the original universities, we should vigorously develop short-term universities and junior colleges with different academic systems, so that all kinds of colleges and universities coexist, and their training objectives are different and harmoniousteaching methodFlexible and diverse.

From the perspective of the structural level of higher education in many countries in the world, the three levels of graduate, undergraduate and junior college are in a pyramid shape. Among them, short-term universities and junior colleges have been paid special attention in recent years and have achieved great development. Such as the current junior college or university in the United Statescommunity collegeIt has grown to more than 1500, with 6.5 million students registered, accounting for more than 50% of the total number of college students in the United States. It is the fastest growing school in American higher education. Primary technical universities in Germany have also developed rapidly and have become an important part of the higher education system. According to statistics, there are 850 junior technical universities in Germany, accounting for about half of the total number of colleges and universities. Japan's short-term universities increased from 270 in 1980 with 300000 students to 625 in 1994 with 1.9 million students. Because short-term universities and junior colleges in various countries are good at clear training objectives, short academic system, low fees, strong regionality and easy employment, they are popular with the production departments of enterprises and the talent and labor market, and promote the rapid development of their own scale and quantity.

  2. Integration of courses

The development of modern science and technology and production is characterized by integration, which is reflected in higher education. The so-called curriculum integration is to makeelementary educationandprofessional education, applied research and development research permeate and cross each other. The purpose is to cultivate students to meet the needs of social development and have the ability to solve complex topicsskill。 Nowadays, the integration of higher education curriculum has been valued by many countries. Due to a series of effective measures, higher education has achieved remarkable results in curriculum reform.

In recent years, the United States has established the integration of curriculum mainly in the form of government decrees. In 1991, the United States government promulgated the program on developing higher education and improving the quality of professionals. According to the programme, "strengthen the ability of professionals to work independently in the production and science and technology sectorsabilityTherefore, "it is required to break the original curriculum boundary and framework, implement interdisciplinary comprehensive research and create a new curriculum in the curriculum reform."integrated coursesFor example, in engineering education, many American universities pay attention to the impact of Engineering on societyservice, using engineering theory to solve the problems of modern urban management and construction, protect the environment and develop the economy, so as to make engineering education andsocial sciencesNatural science has established a close relationship that has never existed before, resulting in the emergence of many new marginal comprehensive courses. For example, environmental engineering, earthquake engineering, traffic engineeringBusiness Engineering, educational engineering, etc. This kind of curriculum breaks through the limitations of traditional professional fields, and its content is multidisciplinary and comprehensive.

  University of Tsukuba, JapanIntegrate comprehensive science intoTeaching plan, reorganizing the curriculum content to strengthen the comprehensiveness of the curriculum has attracted the attention of the international higher education community. Now, other universities in Japan have followed suit and made great efforts to integrate coursesreform

  3. Integration of scientific research, teaching and production

The integration of scientific research, teaching and production is the product of the comprehensive development of higher education, science and economy in the world. From a macro point of view, the establishment of a consortium led by higher education and closely combined with scientific research and production will be a higher education policy implemented by countries all over the worldreform in educationAnd development, its emergence has its objective inevitability. The new technological revolution and the rapid development of modern social economy reflectscientific theoryThe guiding role of science and technology in new technology and the promoting role of science and technology in modern social and economic development. Universities are full of talents and intensive in intelligence, which can best generate new knowledge, develop new technologies, andEnterprise cooperationYou can put the potential of the UniversityproductivityInto real productivity, rightEmerging industriesThe establishment of and the development of new technologies can play a great role in promoting. Today, higher education must face the real social economy and serve the modern social economy, which has become the general trend of higher education reform in the world.

System reform of Higher Education

(1) In recent years, great strides have been made in system reform. The school running system has gradually broken the old pattern that the government is in charge of running schools, and a new pattern of running schools in various forms is being formed.

(2) The reform of the investment system has gradually changed the old system of relying solely on financial allocation, which is taking shapeFinancial appropriationA new system of raising funds mainly through multiple channels.

(3) The reform of the management system has made great progress in five forms of reform, including co construction and co management, cooperative school running, school merger, cooperative school running and transfer to local government management, and is gradually strengthening the overall management of education by the central education administrative department and local education administrative departments.

(4)College entrance examinationThe reform of has begun. At present, the 3 + X examination reform scheme has been widely implemented. The college entrance examination will also realize online admission, and the college entrance examination and admission will be more scientific, fair and fair.

(5) The reform of the school's internal management system has been further deepened, and the school has taken the initiative to adapt to the society's ability and ability to run schools independently according to lawSelf restraintHas been enhanced. The system reform and structural adjustment of higher education are closely combined, and the hierarchical structure and subject structure are gradually becoming more and more reasonable. The total number of undergraduate majors was reduced from 813 to 504 in 1993 and 249 in 1998, broadening the scope of majors and enhancing adaptability. Teaching reform has been carried out in an all-round and in-depth manner, and efforts have been made to improve the quality of talent training.

Facing the 21st century, the reform of teaching content and curriculum system has entered a substantive stage. Many talent training modes meeting the needs of the 21st century are moving from pilot to popularization and application. It is expected that 100 new training modes (teaching plans) will be launched by 2002, and 1000 "21st century Curriculum textbooks" will be compiled and published; The first batch of papers, the training base for basic talents in science and the base for basic courses in engineering are under key construction and deepening reform to transport excellent basic talents for the new century; Encouraging results have been achieved in strengthening the pilot project of College Students' cultural quality education. At the beginning of 1999, the Ministry of education identified 32 bases for college students' cultural quality education in China; To enhanceQuality consciousnessAnd establish the concept of quality education as the centerEducational thoughtThe discussion of ideas is going on continuously and healthily; Teaching qualification evaluation and school evaluation of excellent teaching work play an important role.

Through continuous practice and exploration, a macro monitoring system of teaching quality with Chinese characteristics will be established; All these will lay an important foundation for cultivating talents with solid foundation, wide range of knowledge, strong ability and high quality to meet the needs of the 21st century.

On January 13, 1999, the State Council officially transmitted the Ministry of education's action plan for revitalizing education in the 21st century. The plan is to achieve the goals and tasks set by the 15th CPC National Congress, implement the strategy of revitalizing the country through science and education, comprehensively promote the reform and development of education, and improve the quality and quality of the whole nationinnovation abilityAnd made it. The plan puts forward 11 aspects of planning and requirements. Related to the plan“211 Project”A series of specific implementation plans for talent training, such as the "Yangtze River plan", "cross century excellent talent training plan" and "Chunhui plan", have been effectively carried out, and gratifying results have been achieved.

The opening of higher education to the outside world and international exchanges and cooperation have gradually expanded. Since 1978, the state has sent more than 270000 overseas students to more than 100 countries and regions, and more than 90000 have returned home after learning; More than 210000 foreign students from various countries were received; More than 40000 foreign experts, scholars and teachers have been invited to teach or give short-term lectures in China. Through opening to the outside world, we have actively absorbed and learned from foreign useful experience, which has promoted the improvement of teaching quality and scientific research level.

After the 15th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, China's higher education has taken a new attitude to accelerate reform, develop steadily, improve quality, adapt in an all-round way and move towards the 21st century.


  1. Wang Weiyi. Research on higher education enrollment opportunities from the perspective of social stratum. Guangdong Higher Education Press, August 2011
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Light of Shanghai(Talk| contribution)Published at 19:15 on October 27, 2019

I even have the knowledge of pedagogy. Hahaha, it's great

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