Transportation planning

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What is transportation planning

  Transportation planningyestransportationA more comprehensive long-term development plan. In a sense, transportation planning is also amacro-control, transportation planning is very important for the development of transportation industry.

Principles of transportation planning[1]

  1. The transportation planning shall comply with the national long-term plan

The planning of the transportation industry shall be formulated under the guidance of the national development plan. Transportation construction scale andDevelopment speedWe should adapt to the needs of economic and social developmentneed, makeTransportation capacityEconomic and social growthTransportation demandMaintain a reasonable proportional relationship; The layout of transportation network should meet the needs of industrial and agricultural production, commercial and foreign trade, tourism and population distribution.

  2. Transportation planning shall conform to national conditions

Transport planning should consider bothInternational practice, it should also conform to China's national conditions.

China's terrain is high in the West and low in the East. The economy and transportation in the East and middle are relatively developed; The western region is vast, mostly plateaus and mountains, with poor natural conditions and inconvenient transportation, but it is rich in resources and has great development prospects. The preparation of transportation planning should not only see the development, but also consider the actual situation of our country. For the resource intensive western region, large-scale and large-scale transportation planning should be adopted according to local conditionsfreight volume, lowcostoftype of shipping, such aswater transportRailway and waterway combined transport, highway and waterway combined transport, etc. In short, the preparation of transportation planning should be based on the specific situation of our country, should not be greedy for perfection, and should pay attention toeconomic performance, practical.

  3. Transportation planning shall adapt to social production development and market demand

Develop production,TransportationShould go first. in fact,TransportationIs to construct and layMarket economy systemIt is an important material foundation and an indispensable part of the socialist markettransport market , it is difficult to build a unified, orderly and efficient national market system. Therefore, the preparation of transportation planning should pay attention to adapt to the development of social production and market requirements.

  4. Transportation planning shall be scientific and reasonable

Transportation planning is a way of regulating future transportation, which should be scientific and reasonable. Specifically, when formulating transportation planning, we should consider both current and long-term interests; We should consider not only local interests, but also overall interests; We should consider not only the internal interests of transportation enterprises, but also the interests of all aspects related to transportation enterprises; The method used shall combine qualitative andquantitative method Combine.

Contents of transportation planning[1]

staycommunications and transportation industryIn the development of transportation network, the development of transportation network plays a very important role. Therefore, transportation planning is mainly the planning of integrated transportation network.

When planning the integrated transportation network, the main contents considered include:

(1)Cargo flowCharacteristics, including the departure point and arrival point of goods, expressed in the flow and direction of goods;

(2) The mode of transportation may be adopted under the condition of a certain cargo flowtype of shippingandMeans of transport

(3)Transportation route, there may be multiple lines connected between the arrival and departure points of goods, which can be realized through different linesTransportation networkThere are different layouts and different connection modes for several transportation modes;

(4) Transportation technical equipment, which is the technical factor constituting the transportation network planning scheme. For each transportation mode, the equipment technical level is different, and it is formedTransportation capacityAlso different;

(5) The characteristics of operation organization are shown by adopting different operation organization modes under certain technical equipment conditionsTransportation capacityIt's different.

At present,transportationStill constraintsnational economyAnd the "bottleneck" industry of social development, in order to adapt to the development of national economy, we must do a good job in transportation planning.

Country totransportationMacro planning has been formulated for the development of. For example, in December 2004, the State Council deliberated and adopted the national expressway network plan.planThe determined national expressway network adopts the layout form of the combination of radiation and vertical and horizontal grid to form a major highway traffic channel radiating outward from the central city and connecting east-west and north-south, including 7 capital radiation, 9 north-south longitudinal lines and 18 East-West transverse lines, referred to as' 7918 network ', with a total scale of about 85000 km. After the completion of the national expressway network planning, an expressway network can be formed that "the capital connects the provincial capital, the provincial capitals are connected with each other, connects major cities and covers important counties and cities". This network can cover more than 1 billion people and directly serve more than 85% of the GDP of the country; The mobility of passenger and freight transportation will be significantly improved by achieving an average of 30 minutes in the eastern region, 1 hour in the central region and 2 hours in the western region.

The national expressway network is the highest level backbone channel in China's highway network, mainly connecting large and medium-sized cities, including national and regional economic centersTransportation hub. important foreign trade ports; It mainly undertakes the rapid passenger and freight transportation between regions, provinces and large and medium-sized cities to ensure the provision of efficient, convenient, safe and comfortable transportation servicesservice

Procedures for transportation planning[1]

The transportation system network planning procedure roughly includes the following main steps:

  1. Discussion on planning objectives

First of all, we must fully demonstrate the necessity, possibility and reality of transportation planning in this area. The transport planning must also be subject to the requirements of the regionnational economyAnd the needs of social development, adhere to seeking truth from facts, pay attention to science and technologyeconomic performanceStarting from the characteristics of the region, we should have long-term developmentstrategic thinking, we should make overall arrangements in combination with the existing actual situation.

  2. Organization and preparation process

(1)Organizational work。 Firstly, it is necessary to organize planners to study the purpose of this transportation planning, learn the policies and requirements of the national and local governments for the planning area, deeply and carefully study the technical route and determine the candidates to participate in this planning work.

(2) Preparation. According to the specific requirements of transportation planning, we must first collect relevant data and materials in the planning area: ① population level and labor employment; ② Data on socio-economic activities; ③ Investigation of land use; ④ Current situation of transportation system; ⑤ Passenger flow, cargo flow and distribution of O-D flow (generation destination cargo flow); ⑥ Relevant laws, decrees and government policies; ⑦ The source of funds for this transportation planning; ⑧ Rough estimate of plannedsocial results; ⑨ Comprehensively check the accuracy of the investigated data and data; ⑩ According to the different types of data obtained, thedatabase

  3. Analyze the existing conditions of the planning and calibrate various models

Based on the analysis of the existing conditions of the planning area, the transportation demand prediction model (traffic volume generation and attraction model), traffic volume distribution model, transportation mode selection model and network allocation model (hereinafter referred to as the "four step" model) established by the transportation planning are calibrated by using the investigated base year data. Due to the different mathematical expressions of the model, the calibration methods are also different. After the model is calibrated, it can be used to plan the transportation system in this area.

  4. Establish the basic model of transportation system planning

Based on the survey data of population and social economy in the planning area over the years, the basic model of transportation system planning is established. It includes: (1) population prediction model; (2) Socio economic activity model; (3) Land use model. With these models, the transportation demand in the planning year can be calculated, which is the basis of transportation network planning. Otherwise, there is no condition to use the four-step model for network planning.

  5. Transportation system network planning

Transportation system network planning is the most critical step in the whole planning process. It uses the calibrated network planning model and the annual traffic volume of the planning area to predict the future of the areaTransportation networkThe model used for planning is:

(1) Transportation demand forecasting model. This model is used to calculate the traffic occurrence and attraction in the planning year of the region. With these data, it is possible to use other models to realize the network allocation of the transportation system in the region.

(2) Traffic volume distribution model. The function of the traffic volume distribution model is to obtain the traffic volume distribution (O-D matrix) through iterative operation from the predicted annual traffic occurrence and attraction.

(3) Transportation mode selection model. Transportation mode selection is an important step in transportation planningtype of shippingLook, the transportation system can be divided intoroad transportrailway transportation, air and water transportation, according to the specific conditions of the planning area, this model is used to select the besttype of shipping

(4) Network allocation model. Network allocation is the last important step in the network planning of regional transportation system. Using the prediction data obtained from the first three basic models mentioned above and the fourth model, the traffic volume can be reasonably allocated to the traffic volume of the regiontransportation network So as to solve the network distribution problem in the region. For the newly planned area, the road network planning of the whole area can be solved; For the built areas, the distribution of traffic volume in the road network can be solved, so as to determine whether the existing network density is suitable for traffic development, so as to take corresponding measures to establish an optimized transportation network system.

(5) The validity and accuracy of the model are analyzed. Any model is about real existence orplanAn abstraction and simplification of the established system. It can not be a simple projection of the objective system. There is no model consistent with the objective system in all aspects and details.

The difference between the model established for transportation system network planning and the objective system is the key problem to be answered in the effectiveness analysis of the model.

The validity test includes two parts: the validity of model abstraction and the validity of model transformation. The effectiveness of model abstraction means that the model reflects the reality of the objective system. After comparison, modification and verification with the real system, the more the model can truly describe the real system and be applied by the real system, the more effective the model will be. The effectiveness of model transformation refers tomathematical model convert toComputer softwarePossibility, if it can be guaranteed to be converted intoComputer software, which shows that the effectiveness of model transformation is better.

At present, there is no unified and effective method to evaluate the effectiveness of transportation system network planning model at home and abroad. IfsimulationThe system is a real highway network planning system. The best way to evaluate the effectiveness of the network planning model is to use the actual data to simulate the input and compare the difference between the simulated output and the actual results, so as to obtain the evaluation of the effectiveness of the model.

  6. Long term planning

(1) Determine the stage and implementation steps of transportation system network planning;

(2) Implement the economic source of network planning and implementation;

(3) Determine the scope of responsibility and jurisdiction;

(4) Solve the network interface problem between provinces or regions.

  7. Short term planning

According to the requirements of long-term planning, the main considerations of short-term planning are as follows:

(1) Determine the short-term planned projects and specific implementation methods;

(2) Determine the source of funds;

(3) Determine the completion period.

  8. Complete the network planning of regional transportation system


  1. one one point one one point twoProfessional knowledge and practice of transportation economy (highway) (2006 Edition) (3rd Edition). China personnel publishing house, 3rd Edition, May 2005
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