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Competition overview

  competeIt is one of the relationships between organisms (whether homogeneous or heterogeneous, sometimes in ethnic groups), an effect sometimes in chemical reactionssocial sciencesOne of the basic relationships, tooeconomicsPush onmarket economyThe driving force of development.

As for the concept of competition, as early as 1907, the German jurist Robert explained competition in his works: competition is through a certain processactivityTo show yourability, the efforts made by each party to achieve the common purpose, and the competitive behavior exists only in the same kindcommodityofsupplybetween. Based on various theories, a general definition can be given to competition. Competition is mainly a contest between two or more subjects (conscious individuals or groups) under specific mechanisms and rules to achieve the common purpose of all parties, and produce the results that each subject obtains different interests.

Competitive oneSociologyInteractive forms refer to peoplegroupCompetition for a common goal with groups. There are two types of competition:

(1) Formal competition, i.eorganizationCompetition, such as sports, etc.

(2) Informal competition: some social activities that are not organized and clearly announced, but can actually compare with the level, such as students' entering a higher schoolexaminationWait.

Characteristics of competition

Competition has the following characteristics:

(1) It must be people's pursuit of the same goal, and different goals will not form competition.

(2) This goal must be less and more rare. The pursuit of a large number of easily available goals cannot constitute competition.

(3) The goal of competition is mainly to obtain goals, not to oppose otherscompetitor。 Although competition is a mutually exclusive or opposing relationship between people, it is an indirect opposition relationship rather than a direct opposition relationship.

(4) Competition is conducted in accordance with certain social norms. In order to prevent competition from developing into a direct opposition relationship between people, we must formulate some rules that all parties must abide by. Involving politicsEconomicsSome large-scale competition in the field often requires lawssystemTo maintain, otherwise it will become violence or war, leading toSociologyunrest.

Basic characteristics of competition

Competition has the following basic characteristics:

1. Competition must occur between two or more enterprises. If only one enterprise wants to participate in the competition in a specific market, it will not be competition. Although two or more enterprises can compete in a specific market. In a specific market, although two or more enterprises can participate in competition, due to one of themEnterprise strengthIf it is too strong to be matched by other enterprises, the enterprise willmonopolyThe whole monopoly is to let two or more enterprises exist in a specific market and form a competitive relationship between them.

2. Competition must take place among enterprises in the same industryProduction and operationActive. First, inproductionormanagementBetween enterprises of similar goods, or provide similar productsserviceCompetition between enterprises is generally inevitable. Secondly, competition must be in the production and operation activities of enterprises.

3. Competition must take place in the same specificcommodity marketormarket of labour servicesCome on.

Competition andSeller competitionandBuyer competitionThe former is the competition between the suppliers of goods and services as the main body of the seller, and the latter is the competition between the recipients of goods and services as the main body of the buyer.

Basic principles of competition

  Anti Unfair Competition LawThe first paragraph of Article 2 stipulates: "business operators shall abide by voluntariness, fairness and honesty in market transactionscreditThe principle of abiding by recognizedBusiness ethicsThis provision is the basic principle of competition.

The basic principle of competition refers tomarket competition Participants inMarket transaction behaviorBasic principles that must be followed in. It is applicable to all trading behaviors in the market and all subjects of the market economy. It is not only a moral measure of good and evil, right and wrong, beauty and ugliness of the trading behaviors of the subjects of the market economystandardIt is also a legal norm with legal compulsion. Only civil legal acts that follow these basic principles can be protected by law; Otherwise, if the law does not recognize its corresponding legitimacy, it will not be protected by the law. Economic contract lawAnti Unfair Competition LawThey have accordingly listed these basic principles as the basic principles in the field of their own adjustment. everythingUnfair competition, are all acts against these basic principles. When these principles are applied to the special field of anti unfair competition, they show their unique characteristics different from other fields.

competitive power

  competitive powerIs the ability of the object to display in the competition. Competitiveness is a kind ofRelative index, it can only be displayed through competition. Generally speaking, competitiveness is large, small, strong or weak. But really be accuratemeasureIt's hard to get out, especiallyEnterprise competitiveness

Competitiveness is included in the present of the object, but it is the ability that the object can show in the future. To measure competitiveness, we need to determine a measurement target time.

To evaluate competitiveness, we need to determine a competitive group and evaluate it according to the performance of the target time in the competitive group. Future research methods can be used to measure and evaluate competitiveness, but competitiveness measures the "future" contained in the object "now".

Competitive environment

  Competitive environmentIt is the external environment for the survival and development of enterprises, which is very important for the development of enterprises.Competitive environmentChanges in the world continue to generate threats and opportunities. For enterprises, how to detect changes in the competitive environment, avoid threats and seize opportunities has become a major issue of solidarity. At present, China has accelerated its integration into Chinainternational economy Under the background of, the competitive environment of Chinese enterprises has changed dramatically, including industry structureCompetition pattern, consumer demand and technological development have changed dramatically, and the uncertainty has increased. Any enterprise must always pay attention to the changes of the environment in order to seek advantages and avoid disadvantages. Any slowness and negligence to environmental change will cause a serious or even decisive blow to the enterprise. This is the birth of enterprisesMarketing informationExternal causes of management requirements.

Competitive environment analysis is available through everythingMarket informationMaster the of competitorscompetitive strategy , find its disadvantages and formulate appropriate strategies to launch an attack; Find its advantages and formulate appropriate strategies for avoidance. Through the situation of competitors to facilitatecompanyCorrect marketing strategylocationAnd better compete with competitors in the market.

competitive intelligence

It appeared in the 1950s and rose in the 1980scompetitive intelligence Competitive Intelligence, CI), 1986American Association of competitive intelligence practitioners(Society of Competitive Intelligence Professionals, SCIP)Although it has been less than 20 years, its influence has spread all over the world and should be regarded as economicsManagementAnd the major development in the field of Information ScienceSocial informatizationIt is an important sign of the development of intelligence (Intelligence) on the basis of information technology, which will have an important impact on global economic development and social progress.

  Kirk W.M. TysonMr. pointed out in 1998 that the development of human society will enter the intelligence age from the industrial age to the information age. He discussed the human experience in the 20th centuryscientific management, interpersonal managementHomework researchstrategic planning After the Japanese style management, the 1990s is positiveCognitive management(cognitive management) forward, emphasizing thinking, learning andknowledge acquisitioninformationAnd intelligence management. At the end of the 20th century, we entered the information age, and some farsighted enterprises have foreseen the next wave: the arrival of the information (Intelligence) era.

Competitive strategy

  Competitive strategyIt means that after correctly defining and analyzing competitors and competitive situation, the enterpriseplanThe main competitive means adopted in a long period of time. Famous American strategistMichael PorterIn itsCompetitive strategyandCompetitive advantageIn the two strategic monographs, it is pointed out that enterprises generally“Differentiation”And“Cost leadershipstrategySelect one of them to formcompetitive edge

traditionstrategyThe environmental foundation is the industryMarket boundaryClear, asymmetric information and high barriers to entry and exit of enterprises. The clearer the distinction between industry cycle and industry,Competitive strategyThe more useful; The more asymmetric or incomplete the information, the more important the competitive strategy is; The higher the barriers for enterprises to enter and exit a certain industry,Enterprise Strategy The more useful your position is.

According to Porter,Basic competitive strategyThere are three types:Total cost leadership strategyDifferentiation strategyTarget agglomeration strategy

Cost leadership strategy means that enterprises reduce costs through effective wayscostTo make the enterpriseTotal costA strategy that is lower than the cost of competitors, even lower than the lowest cost in the same industry, so as to obtain competitive advantage.

Differentiation strategy is to makeEnterprise productsWith competitorsproductA strategy adopted to form distinctive characteristics. The core of this strategy is to achieve something beneficial to customersvalueThe uniqueness of. Enterprises should highlight the differences between their products and competitors, mainly including productsservicepersonnel mattersAnd image. The implementation of differentiation strategy also needs to have certain conditions and organizational requirements. The implementation of differentiation strategy can cultivate customers' loyalty to products and reduce their sensitivity to price; Even if the price is higher than similar products. Customers also have preferences. Differentiation strategy also includes a series ofrisk

Centralization strategy is also calledFocus strategy, which means that the business activities of the enterprise or business unit are concentrated in a specific buyer groupProduct lineA strategy in a certain part of the market or a regional market. The core of this strategy is to target a specific user group, a subdivided product line or aMarket segments。 Centralization strategy generally has two forms of change, one is low-cost centralization, the other isDifferentiated concentrationChange. Specifically, centralization strategy can be divided into product line centralization strategy, customer centralization strategy and regional centralization strategy. The implementation of the centralization strategy requires certain conditions, but alsoprofitAnd risk coexist.

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1.165.193. * published at 15:13 on May 24, 2019

A typo must occur.

It should be rewritten as "must happen".

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