Zhen Ning Yang

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Zhen Ning Yang
Yang Zhenning --- he has made landmark contributions in the fields of particle physics, statistical mechanics and condensed matter physics

catalogue

Introduction to Yang Zhenning

  Zhen Ning Yang(October 1, 1922 ~), born in Hefei, Anhui Province,Chinese University of Hong KonglectureprofessorTsinghua UniversityProfessorStony Brook University Professor Rong Xiu,Chinese Academy of SciencesAcademician, academician of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States, academician of Taiwan's "Central Research Institute", academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences and member of the British royal society. In 1957, he won the Nobel Prize in physics for putting forward the concept of "parity non conservation"; He was the first Chinese American scientist to visit China after the loosening of Sino US relations, and actively promoted Sino US cultural exchanges and mutual understanding between the Chinese and American people; It has made great contributions to the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and the United States, China US talent exchange and scientific and technological cooperation.

In 1942, Yang Zhenning graduated fromSouthwest Associated University; In 1944, he received a master's degree from Tsinghua University; In 1945, he won the gengzi indemnity scholarship and went to the United States to study; In 1948, he received a doctorate in philosophy from the University of Chicago and served as a lecturer at the University of ChicagoPrincetonResearcher of Institute of higher studies; In 1955, he was a professor at the Institute of higher learning in Princeton, USA; In 1966, he was appointedState University of New York at Stony BrookProfessor and director of the Institute of physics; In 1986, he was professor of Bowen at the Chinese University of Hong Kong; In 1998, he was a professor of Tsinghua University.

Yang Zhenning has made landmark contributions in the fields of particle physics, statistical mechanics and condensed matter physics. In the 1950s, he cooperated with R. L. mills to put forward the non Abelian gauge field theory; In 1956, he cooperated with Li Zhengdao to put forward the law of parity non conservation in weak interaction; A lot of pioneering work has been done in particle physics and statistical physics, Yang Baxter equation has been proposed, and a new research direction of quantum integrable systems and multi-body problems has been opened up. In addition, Yang Zhenning promotedChinese University of Hong KongInstitute of Mathematical SciencesTsinghua UniversityHigher research centerNankai UniversityThe establishment of the laboratory of theoretical physics, the foundation of the higher academic research center of Sun Yat sen University in Hong Kong and the higher academic research center of Sun Yat sen University.

Early experience

On October 1, 1922, Yang Zhenning was born in Sanhe Town, Hefei, Anhui Province (now Feixi County). At the age of 4, his mother began to teach Yang Zhenning to read. Yang Zhenning learned 3000 words in more than a year.

In the summer of 1938, Yang Zhenning participated in the unified enrollment examination with his sophomore degree and was accepted by the university with excellent resultsSouthwest Associated UniversityAdmission. He recalled, "when I applied for the Chemistry Department of Southwest Associated University, but because the examination subjects needed physics, I borrowed a physics book from my friend. After reading it for a month, I found that physics was more interesting than chemistry, so I fell in love with physics."

In 1942, Yang Zhenning graduated from KunmingNational Southwestern Associated University , tutor of undergraduate thesisPeking UniversityProfessor Wu Dayou was later admitted to the Physics Department of the Institute of science of the University (Institute of physics of Tsinghua University) as a graduate student under Professor Wang Zhuxi.

Ling Ning, Jin Qihua and Gu Zhenchao live in the same room with him. Huang Kun and Zhang Shoulian also occasionally come to stay for a few days.

In 1944, he graduated as a graduate student from National Southwest United University. The supervisor of his master's thesis was Professor Wang Zhuxi.

  Study abroad

In 1945, he got the gengzi indemnity scholarship to the United States and studied in the United StatesUniversity of Chicago

In 1948, he received a doctorate in philosophy from the University of Chicago, and his doctoral thesis supervisor was Professor Edward Taylor.

In 1949, enteredPrincetonConducted by the Institute of higher researchpost-doctoralResearch work and began to cooperate with Li Zhengdao. Oppenheimer, the dean at that time, said that his favorite sight was Yang and Li walking on the grass of Princeton; In the same year, the first composite model of elementary particles was proposed in cooperation with Enrique Fermi.

In 1954, Yang Zhenning and mills proposed the theoretical structure of non Abelian gauge field.

In 1956, he published a paper with Li Zhengdao, which overturned one of the central messages of Physics - parity conservation. The performance of elementary particles and their mirror images are exactly the same.

In 1957, he and Li Zhengdao won the Nobel Prize in physics for jointly putting forward the theory of parity non conservation. They were the first to win the Nobel Prize in physicsNobel PrizeChinese. When the news came, the Chinese people were all proud. Yang Zhenning is proud of having been influenced by Chinese cultureNobel PrizeHe delivered a speech on behalf of him: "I am deeply aware of a fact: in a broad sense, I am the product of Chinese culture and Western culture. I am not only the product of harmony between both sides, but also the product of conflict between both sides. I would like to say that I am not only proud of my Chinese tradition, but also concentrate on modern science."

After winning the Nobel Prize, Yang Zhenning encouraged his mother-in-law Cao Xiuqing in Taiwan to try to transfer to the mainland of the motherland via the United States. Under his arrangement, Cao Xiuqing flew from the United States to Geneva, which was personally picked up by comrades of the Chinese Ministry of foreign affairs. After a few days' rest, he transferred to Beijing to settle down.

In 1958, he was elected an academician of Taiwan's "Central Research Institute".

  Join foreigners

In 1964, he joined the United States and became an American citizen; In the same year, shouldChinese University of Hong KongHe was invited to give a speech at the newly built Hong Kong City Hall, which made a sensation and met his parents and siblings in Hong Kong.

In 1965, he was elected academician of the National Academy of Sciences.

Since 1966, he has served asStony Brook University Albert Einstein Chair Professor and director of the Institute of theoretical physics.

In 1970, he went to Hong Kong to give lectures at the invitation of the Chinese University of Hong Kong.

In the summer of 1971, Yang Zhenning returned to China for a visit. According to the physics volume of the Encyclopedia of China, "Yang Zhenning visited the people's Republic of China in the summer of 1971. He was the first well-known American scholar to visit New China."

After returning to the United States, Yang Zhenning gave speeches in several American cities. Because of his influence, many Americans began to hold a friendly attitude towards China and were willing to get close to China; Some Chinese American scholars have returned home to visit and offer advice for the cause of science, technology and education in the motherland. When Sino US relations had not thawed at that time, he took a considerable risk in doing so, but he believed that it was his obligation to report positively on China's many developments in all aspects. Because of his academic status, he often goes to Europe, South America, Southeast Asia, Japan and other places to give lectures or visit. Everyone often asks him to make a report on China. His report has had a great impact on these places, especially the local overseas Chinese. Chinese people, especially scientists, have a friendly attitude towards China and are willing to get close to China. Yang Zhenning has made great contributions.

In the first half of 1971, Yang Zhenning participated in the fishing protection movement. As the first person for overseas Chinese scientists to visit New China, he returned to the United States in 1971. At the invitation of "fishing protection" students, he shuttled around colleges and universities in the United States to give speeches. He showed the students the indomitable spirit of China he saw, and infected a group of enthusiastic young people with the idea of serving the country.

He delivered a speech entitled "my impression of the people's Republic of China" among Baoyu students, which caused a sensation. He, historian he Bingdi and mathematician Chen Shengshen firmly supported the fishing protection movement and were called the spiritual mentor of the movement. The memoirs written by Taiwanese students studying in the United States talked about Yang Zhenning's influence in the fishing movement and conquered many Taiwanese students. Statistics show that most of the students in Taiwan at that time were going to work in Chinese mainland after they completed their studies.

On October 29, 1971, Yang Zhenning was in the US Senate for foreign relationscommitteeTestified at the hearing on the "return of the Okinawa agreement". He comprehensively described the fact that the Diaoyu Islands are Chinese territory from the perspective of history, geography and reality, and made important contributions to safeguarding China's territorial integrity.

In 1974, Yang Zhenning took advantage of the opportunity to return to Shanghai to visit his relatives and began to communicate with themFudan UniversityGu Chaohao and more than a dozen other teachers have cooperated fruitfully for several years to promoteState University of New York at Stony BrookSign an exchange agreement with Fudan.

In 1975, Yang Zhenning went toZhou EnlaiIt is suggested to strengthen the work of popular science and introduce the copyright of the Chinese version of Scientific American. stayDeng XiaopingWith the concern of leaders, this publication entered China and becamereform and opening-upThe first copyright cooperative journal in China, the predecessor of global science. Scientific American has the longest and most continuous history in the worldpublishThe longest running magazine has affected several generations of elite people.

In 1977, Yang Zhenning, Liang Enzo and others founded the "American Chinese Association" in Boston as president to promote China US relations. In the same year, as the head of the association, he co sponsored the establishment of the "American Chinese Committee for the normalization of U.S. - China diplomatic relations" with others, and paid $8000 at his own expenseNew York Times"Open letter to US President Carter" and other articles were published on the whole page, urging the two countries to establish diplomatic relations. The full text of the open letter was published in English, with eight Chinese characters added next to it: "it's not too late to mend.".

In March 1978, at the initiative of Yang Zhenning and others, the University of science and technology established the first youth class.

In early 1979, Deng xiaoping visited the United States and signed a contract with US President Carter to establish diplomatic relations. Yang Zhenning delivered a speech at the banquet welcoming Deng Xiaoping and his wife on behalf of the national Chinese Association and Chinese from all walks of life in the United States. Yang Zhenning delivered a welcome speech entitled "the responsibility of building a friendship bridge".

In 1980, Yang Zhenning was in BeijingStony Brook University Initiated the establishment of the "Academic Exchange Committee with China" to fund Chinese scholars to study at the University for one year.

In 1981, Yang Zhenning set up a CEEC bonus at Shixi branch in the United States to raise funds from the United States and Hong Kong to specifically support Chinese universities and research institutes to be visiting scholars in Shixi. By the early 1990s, more than 80 Chinese scholars had been supported by this bonus to successfully go to the United States, and most of them returned to their original units on time.

In 1982, he served asChinese University of Hong KongHonorary chair professor, Department of physics.

In 1983, Yang Zhenning initiated the establishment in Hong KongSun Yat-sen UniversityIn the 24 years from its establishment to the end of 2007, the foundation has supported more than HK $20 million and hundreds of basic research projects, making a group of young and middle-aged scholars stand out. At the same time, it has also built a research building for Sun Yat sen University. The foundation of higher academic research center of Sun Yat sen University of Hong Kong is a non-profit organization registered in Hong Kong. Its initiator is Professor Yang Zhenning. For the purpose of supporting basic research of Sun Yat sen University, the foundation supports some basic research projects with important academic value.

On December 28, 1983, Yang Zhenning suggested to Deng Xiaoping that "foreign countries believe that it is more beneficial to engage in software at the age of 15-18." therefore, the youth class of University of science and technology was establishedComputer softwareIt has trained a number of software prodigies for the country and made positive contributions to economic construction and scientific and technological development.

In 1985, Yang Zhenning proposed to establish Elida youth Invention Award. The award was set up to encourage the development of Chinese teenagerscreative thinkingAnd cultivate practical ability, and promote the vigorous development of extracurricular scientific and technological activities, creation and invention activities in primary and secondary schools. By 2005, more than 20000 people had participated in the selection activities at all levels. In the same period, Yang Zhenning contributed to many awards, such as "Wu Jianxiong physics award", "Chen Shengshen mathematics Award". Yang Zhenning noted that strong learning ability but lack of scientific research creativity is a common problem among Asian students, so he advocated the establishment of the school in 1986“founder of Amoy UniversityThe "youth Invention Award" encourages young people to think hard and invent new products with economic benefits for the country. In 2002, the award was also the sameFudan UniversityShanghai Jiaotong UniversityShanghai UniversityAnd other Shanghai universities.

In 1986, he was invited to be a professor of Bowen at the Chinese University of Hong Kong and received his mother to Hong Kong for many times. In the same year, he went to Taiwan for the first time to celebrate the birthday of Master Wu Dayou and attended the 17th academician conference of Taiwan's Academia Sinica. In the same year, at the invitation of Chinese American mathematician Chen Shengshen, Yang Zhenning established a theoretical physics laboratory in the Institute of mathematics of Nankai University. After the establishment of the research office, in the open spirit of "based on Nankai, facing the whole country and looking at the world", it has carried out a series of research work and trained a large number of talents for China.Chinese Academy of SciencesLong Yiming, academician and director of Chen Shengshen Institute of mathematics, said that the theoretical physics laboratory has made important contributions to the development of China's scientific cause, which is inseparable from Mr. Yang Zhenning's guidance and help. He personally raised funds to support and guide what should be paid attention toResearch and developmentDirection, personally participate in many international conferences held by the room, and subsidize doctoral students in the room after graduationStony Brook University Work for one year.

In 1993, he was elected a member of the Royal Society.

In the same year, Yang Zhenning was employed as honorary president of Dongguan Institute of technology. In February 2007, he donated scholarships to the University, and by 2014, 128 people had won awards.

In 1994, Yang Zhenning served as a consultant and executive member of Qiushi technology in Hong KongFoundationIt was founded in Hong Kong to promote scientific and technological research in China and reward scholars who have made achievements in the field of science and technology.

In 1994, he won the bower award from Franklin college in Philadelphia.

In 1994, he founded the Institute of Mathematical Sciences of the Chinese University of Hong Kong with Professor Qiu Chengtong, the first Chinese fields award winner.

In 1995, he applied forOverseas Chinese UniversityHonorary professor.

In 1996, he was awardedTsinghua UniversityShanghai Jiaotong UniversityTwo universities confer honorary doctorates.

In January 1996, Yang Zhenning was appointed by the State Council of ChinaScience and technologycommitteeIt was awarded the national international science and Technology Cooperation Award for the first time. The award aims to reward international friends who have made outstanding contributions to China's science and technology.

At 0 a.m. on July 1, 1997, he participated in the grand ceremony of return at the Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Center.

In 1997, in order to speed up the development of science, the then president of Tsinghua University, Wang Dazhong, made a decision after repeated consultations with Professor Yang ZhenningPrincetonBased on the experience of the Institute of higher studies, the higher research center of Tsinghua University was established to build it into a high-level pure academic unit (renamed the Institute of higher studies of Tsinghua University in 2009). The Institute has made a number of important achievements in the fields of theoretical condensed matter physics, cold atom physics and theoretical computer, and has gathered many world-class scholars. Yang Zhenning served as the honorary director of the higher research center of Tsinghua University, promoted the establishment of the higher research center of Tsinghua University, helped Tsinghua introduce top talents such as Yao Qizhi, established two foundations for Tsinghua in Hong Kong and the United States, and successfully raised huge school running funds.

In the same year, he was awarded the honorary doctorate of science of the Chinese University of Hong Kong.

In May 1997, the international asteroid center officially named the asteroid 3421 as "Yang Zhenning star".

In December 1997, Tsinghua North America Education Foundation, initiated by Yang Zhenning and Ding Zhaozhong, was registered in Delaware and won the United States in 1998IRSApproval, enjoy exemption from the United States Federalincome taxTreatment. The purpose of its establishment is to expand the international exchanges and cooperation of Tsinghua University, especially to promote the exchange and understanding between Tsinghua University and the educational, scientific, technological and cultural circles in the United States and explore new opportunitiesFinancing channels, strive for the support and help of overseas people of insight to Tsinghua's education, and realize the grand goal of building a world-class universitytarget

In May 1999, Yang Zhenning officially retired. Shixi branch named the Institute of theoretical physics "Yang Zhenning Institute of theoretical physics" on the same day, and was awarded the first-class honorary doctorate by the University in the same year; In the same year, Yang Zhenning decided to generously donate a large number of his articles, letters, manuscripts and medals to the Chinese University of Hong Kong, including the famousNobel PrizeZhang, the Yang Zhenning academic archive on the campus of CUHK was established.

In May 1999, under the initiative of Yang Zhenning and others, the China foundation for international scientific exchange was registered. Yang Zhenning said that with the increasingly frequent international scientific and technological exchanges and the increasing interaction of various disciplines, international scientific and technological exchanges are becoming more and more important. He hopes that the China International Science Exchange Foundation will become a platform for China's and international scientific and technological exchanges and promote the communication of scientific and technological exchanges.

On March 16, 2000, he suggested setting up an Institute of American Studies in famous universities and publishing papers in famous professional journals in the United States, so as to enhance the understanding of China among American intellectuals.

On October 29, 2000, Yang Zhenning, who was on an academic visit to Nanjing University, was pleased to donate money to set up "Yang Zhenning" in the Universityscholarship”To reward people withinnovation abilityAnd scientific research ability, especially outstanding undergraduates from poor families, the total scholarship fund is 500000 yuan. Yang Zhenning said he would continue to add in the future.

In an interview with reporters, Yang Zhenning said, "although my father is a university professor, becauseinflation, my family is very poor and my life is very difficult. It is the scholarship that helped me through the difficulties. I have visited the mainland many times in recent years. I feel very sad to see that many young students' studies are affected by family difficulties, so I have such an idea. "Yang Zhenning has deep and high hopes for Chinese youth, he said, China's advantage is that it has young talents unmatched by any country in the world. Chinese youth in the 21st century have a special mission. I hope every college student can realize this.

In the same year, Yang ZhenningChinese University of Hong KongThe "Yang Zhenning scholarship" was established to commend CUHK students with excellent research and academic achievements. Until 2012, 209 undergraduates and 15 postgraduates have won the scholarship.

In 2002, he served as the chairman of the Shaw award evaluation committee.

  Return to teach

At the end of 2003, Yang Zhenning returned to Beijing to settle down.

Before Yang Zhenning moved to Tsinghua University in Beijing for a long time at the end of 2003, Tsinghua University had already built three "master residences", one for Yang Zhenning, one for Lin Jiaqiao, who Yang Zhenning arranged to work in Tsinghua, and the other for Yang Zhenning laterPrinceton UniversityPlease go back to Yao Qizhi, an outstanding computer mathematics expert in Tsinghua.

On March 25, 2004, Yang Zhenning criticized Li Zhuming, a Hong Kong Independence politician, for "testifying" in the U.S. Senate not long ago, which was neither proper nor wise. Yang Zhenning said earnestly that according to the basic law and even the world order, Hong Kong is a part of China. This is an established fact. Hong Kong people must have a correct understanding, otherwise "very unfavorable things" will happen in Hong Kong.

On April 21, 2004, Tsinghua University established the "Yang Zhenning lecture fund" to hire internationally famous professors and outstanding young scholars to devote themselves to scientific research in the higher research center of Tsinghua University. Professor Weng Zhengyu became the first "Yang Zhenning lecture professor".

On July 17, 2004, Yang Zhenning was in BeijingPeking University, delivered a speech to more than 1200 Taiwanese students who went to Beijing to participate in the "all China Federation of Taiwan compatriots Youth Summer Camp 2004". When talking about the experience after the July 7th incident, Mr. Yang said emotionally to the students in Taiwan: "if anyone comes to Beijing again, I suggest you go to Lugou Bridge, because Lugou bridge is the place where the Japanese shot the first shot in attacking North China."

On September 13, 2004, 81 year old Yang Zhenning began to teach general physics to undergraduates at Tsinghua University. He said: "now many professors are unwilling to teach undergraduates, but I think it is very important to teach undergraduates. I also hope I can drive more people." he said: "before each class, I have to spend two hours preparing lessons carefully. I want to know the progress of students."

He was hired in November 2004Hainan UniversityDistinguished professor.

Yang Zhenning was in Beijing on November 12, 2004Shandong UniversityIn his speech, he stressed that there is only one China, "cooperation leads to prosperity and division leads to decline". Yang Zhenning fondly recalled the excitement of July 1, 1997, when he witnessed the great historical moment of Hong Kong's return in Hong Kong, and said that this was the dream day of his parents' intellectuals, because "the Chinese nation has really stood up!" he also pointed out many huge problems existing in China, but he said, "These problems are no more serious than the huge problems experienced by the Chinese nation in the past 100 years. Since we were able to solve the problems 100 years ago, today's China can still overcome difficulties with its inherent resilience."

On April 2, 2005, Yang Zhenning donated money to establish "Yang Zhenning excellent poor students" in Hainan Universityscholarship”It is used to support 20 excellent and poor students in Hainan University to successfully complete their studies every year. When Yang Zhenning came to Hainan to attend the opening ceremony of the annual academic conference of China Association for science and technology in November 2004, he expressed his desire to help poor students in Colleges and universities in Hainan Province. The scholarship named after Yang Zhenning is 1000 yuan per personRMB

In May 2005, Yang Zhenning went to Hong Kong to become the higher academic research center of Tsinghua UniversityfundraisingHe's talkingUniversity of Hong KongLi JiachengDuring the naming storm of the medical college, he said that if Mr. Li Ka Shing donated 1 billion yuan to Tsinghua higher academic research center, he would name the center after Mr. Li. It is reported that Professor Yang has raised 10 million US dollars in the past year.

May 20, 2007, higher academic research center of Sun Yat sen University, Hong KongFoundationAll its assets were presented to Sun Yat sen University free of charge. Professor Yang Zhenning, the founder of the foundation, attended the asset presentation and handover ceremony. The main contents were: cash of more than 11 million yuan, about 360000 Hong Kong dollars, a research building with an area of about 4000 square meters and all its equipment. Yang Zhenning said with emotion in his speech: "I hope I can have the opportunity to see another leap in scientific research of Sun Yat sen University in 25 years."

On September 22, 2007, Yang Zhenning celebrated his 85th birthday and was in BeijingChinese University of Hong Kong(CUHK) held a ceremony to present a bronze statue of Yang Zhenning. In his speech, Yang Zhenning pointed out that he had a deep relationship with CUHK. As early as mid-1964, when most places were still barren mountains, he had visited CUHK. Later, he taught at CUHK and met his parents and siblings who had been separated for a long time at CUHK. When he mentioned why he chose to place the bronze statue near the Boulevard of CUHK, he said with emotion: "I want to be here for a long time to watch the development of CUHK. I see thousands of students take it every autumngraduation certificate。”

On November 29, 2008, it was selected by the society“reform and opening-upThe results of "China's most influential overseas experts in the past 30 years" were announced at the "international talent Summit Forum", and Yang Zhenning was elected. The reason for his election is: in the period when China US relations have not yet thawed, he has driven a large number of Chinese scholars to return home to provide advice and suggestions for the modernization of the motherland, and is promoting the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and the United StatesTalent exchangeAnd scientific and technological cooperation; Hong Kong and the United States have successively initiated the establishment of three foundations for Sun Yat sen UniversityTsinghua UniversityRaise hundreds of millions of Yuan overseas; promote the establishment of the advanced research center of Tsinghua University to introduce new talents to Tsinghua UniversitycomputerNobel PrizeTuring Award”The winner Yao Qizhi and other top scholars have made positive contributions.

On April 20, 2011, Hu Jintao met with Yang Zhenning at Tsinghua University. He learned that he was nearly 90 years old and was still teaching postgraduates and undergraduates. The general secretary praised him and asked him to take care of his health.

In June 2012, Yang Zhenning celebrated his 90th birthday at Tsinghua University and received a black crystal engraved with his great contribution from the University. The black crystal is engraved with Du Fu's poem "the article is eternal, the gains and losses are known". Yang Zhenning's four important academic contributions are engraved around the crystal: "norms"field theory”"Parity non conservation theory" and his achievements in statistical mechanics and high temperature superconductivity.

In September of the same year,Chinese University of Hong KongA series of activities were held to celebrate Professor Yang Zhenning's ninth rank honor, including popular science lectures, academic seminars and birthday dinner, to express the respect and love of university colleagues for Professor Yang. Yang Zhenning attended the event with his wife and received the congratulations of Chinese master students, relatives and friends.

In October 2013, Yang Zhenning was a guestSouthwest Associated Universityforum.

In March 2015, was awardedNational Taiwan UniversityHonorary doctorate of science; in the same month, the University of Macao awarded Yang Zhenning the honorary doctorate of 2014 at Tsinghua University. Yang Zhenning said that he was very honored to receive the highest honor from the University of Macao.

On August 26, 2016, Yang Zhenning and Weng fan presented to the China Art MuseumdonationXiong Bingming's three top sculptures in his collection. Xiong Bingming is a famous French Chinese artist and philosopher. Among the three works, the penholder was specially created by Xiong Bingming for Yang Zhenning. The initials on the back of the works are a witness of their friendship. [76] Yang Zhenning and his wife generously turned the "family collection" into a "national treasure" and donated Xiong Bingming's penholder to the China Art Museum Three sculptures of camel and horse.

On December 8, 2016, the award of 2016 China's annual scientific and technological figures was presented by famous physicistsNobel PrizeWinner: Yang Zhenning, winner: China Aerospace Science and technologygroupTiangong II Shenzhou 11 manned space mission development team.

In February 2017, he gave up his foreign nationality and became a Chinese citizenChinese Academy of SciencesProfessor Yang Zhenning, a foreign academician, officially became an academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  Help science and education

He Zhen, party secretary and vice chairman of Guangdong Association for science and technology:“NobelPhysics award winner Yang ZhenningprofessorOften participate in domestic academic exchanges. Many places in China have introduced many high-end talents of the "young generation" through Professor Yang Zhenning, including Professor Yang Zhenning's disciples. "

In 1986, Yang Zhenning foundedNankai UniversityThe Theoretical Physics Research Office of the Institute of mathematics has carried out a series of research work in the open spirit of "based on Nankai, facing the whole country and looking at the world". After its establishment, Yang Zhenning personally guided the research work. The main research directions are mathematical physics and its application in physics, including quantum integrable systems, Yang mills field and Yang -BaxterSystem, quantum group, algebraic structure of correlation system, Yangian, knot theory, etc.

The laboratory of theoretical physics founded by Yang Zhenning has occupied a place in the world. Among the doctorates cultivated, some have been elected academicians, some have become vice presidents of universities, and some have obtained tenure in famous overseas universities. In the words of Ge Molin, director of the laboratory and academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the laboratory has made some achievements, "a group of people have graduated and done something".

Academician Ge Molin recalled that Yang Zhenning "managed" very carefully. Since 1988, the theoretical physics room in Nankai has held seven workshops, inviting the most influential scientists from all directions. Due to lack of funds, Yang Zhenning has to raise lecture fees from Hong Kong.

In 1992, Yang Zhenning raised 20000 US dollars for an international conference hosted by Nankai. Considering that it is not easy to change the 100 yuan notes in the mainland, he specially changed them into 20 yuan and 50 yuan notes and brought them in a bag. The first computer and laser printer of Nankai Institute of mathematics were also purchased by Yang Zhenning from Hong Kong and transported to Tianjin. He also sent his secretary to type. He even considered the habit of foreign guests drinking coffee and planned to bring his own coffee pot.

Early graduates of Nankai theoretical physics research office, including the current Vice Chairman of Jilin provincial CPPCCNortheast Normal UniversityVice President Xue KangChinese Academy of SciencesAcademician sun Changpu, Chinese Academy of Sciencesgraduate studentSu Gang, vice president of the college, has been funded by Yang Zhenning to teach in his schoolStony Brook University Visit for one year. They didn't know that Yang Zhenning went to Chinatown with a high fever to raise money.

On June 18, 2011, Nankai University celebrated the 25th anniversary of the establishment of the laboratory of theoretical physics and Mr. Yang Zhenning's 89th birthday by means of Frontier discussion of theoretical physics. Gong Ke, President of Nankai University, said that on the occasion of celebration, we should remember Mr. Chen Shengshen and Mr. Yang Zhenning. This year marks the 100th birthday of Mr. Chen Shengshen and the 89th birthday of Mr. Yang Zhenning. They have had more than 70 years of academic cooperation and profound friendship since the 1930s, and the theoretical physics laboratory is an important platform for their cooperation in their later years. In the past 25 years, the laboratory of theoretical physics has made outstanding achievements and trained a large number of talents.

Long Yiming, academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and director of Chen Shengshen Institute of mathematics, said in his speech that over the past 25 years, the theoretical physics laboratory has made important contributions to the development of China's scientific cause, which is inseparable from Mr. Yang Zhenning's guidance and help. He personally raised funds to support and guide what should be paid attention toResearch and developmentDirection, personally participated in many international conferences held by the room, and funded the doctoral students of the room to work at Stony Brook, State University of New York for one year after graduation. Under the guidance of Mr. Yang's ideas of "better clumsy than Chinese, better clumsy than skillful" and "doing a good job in living physics", teachers and students continue to go deep into the inherent research direction, pay attention to new development, and exercise and grow in the academic competition. Today, Mr. Yang is still very concerned about the development of theoretical physics laboratory and is an example for us to learn from.

As Yang Zhenning personally hiredNankaiGe Molin, director of the theoretical physics research office, said that I have always done things under the kind care of Mr. Chen Shengshen and the direct guidance of Mr. Yang Zhenning. From them, we have learned not only mathematics and physics, but also life. Although Mr. Yang is nearly 90 years old, we still owe him a lot of important thingsreport, with his guidance and support.

Academician Zhu bangfen: Yang Zhenning helpstsinghuaThe Department of physics has fundamentally changed its face and has personally done a lot of important research work. I often receive messages from himE-mail, the sending time is often more than 10:00 p.m. or 11:00 p.m. Many outstanding young physicists have been trained at Tsinghua University, several of whom are already well-known internationally. Nearly 30 articles have been publishedSCIPapers, units and departmentsTsinghua UniversityIn addition, several monographs have been published.

Professor Yang Zhenning returned to Tsinghua University from the United States in 2003 and officially settled down. In the first year, he personally taught "freshman physics"; After that, he put down his teaching work and focused all his energy on the development of Tsinghua higher academic research center. Tsinghua University established the higher research center in 1997. Its founder Yang Zhenning served as honorary director and is committed to basic scientific research and talent training. He donated all his salary at Tsinghua to introduce talents and train students.

Tsinghua higher academic research center is Yang Zhenning's imitation of the United StatesPrincetonThe model of higher research center was established, with small scale and small number of people, but the personnel and research projects must be first-class. Tsinghua University is responsible for the daily operation of the center. However, if some scientists are invited to serve as visiting scholars, the center must provide its own funds. Therefore, fund-raising has become one of the most important tasks of the "center".

The first fund-raising target set by Yang Zhenning was US $15 million. By the beginning of 2005, 10 million (i.e. more than HK $78 million) had been completed.

Professor Yang gave a vivid example of the importance of fund-raising to universities and research work.Princeton UniversityProfessor Yao Qizhi, a Chinese scholar of Chinese origin, is the global authority of today's calculator science. Tsinghua University and Yang Zhenning all want to hire him to Tsinghua, and Professor Yao himself has the same intention. But. Hiring a highly paid Professor like Yao Qizhi has to go through many "checkpoints" in the mainland, and I can't make a decision for a while. But Yao Qizhi didn't sit there and wait. The opportunity to hire passed away. Professor Yang Zhenning immediately made a decision. He called Yao Qizhi and said, "if you come to Tsinghua, we will pay you according to your salary in the United States!" Professor Yang said that the reason why he was so generous to "pat his chest" was that the research center had raised $10 million to "be rich and powerful". Without these donations, talents like Yao Qizhi might pass Tsinghua. Now, Yao Qizhi has become a professor in the Department of computing at Tsinghua University and participated in the work of the National Laboratory.

Yang Zhenning pointed out: at present, fund-raising work is very important for Chinese universities and research institutions, because the development of all aspects of the country is better, and many top students who didn't return to study abroad in those yearsScientific and technological talents, all intend to return home to serve, but the gap in salary is a major obstacle. At present, in the United States, a young professor who has received a doctorate for two or three years has an annual salary of about $60000 to $80000, but if he returns to China, he can get up to 15000 yuan a month. For some scholars who are married and have wives and children, the problem of money cannot be ignored. If universities and research institutions have donation support, they can provide equal treatment to attract first-class talents back.

Major achievements

Academic achievements

  Phase transition theory

Statistical mechanics is one of the main research directions of Yang Zhenning. His characteristic in statistical mechanics is the strict solution and analysis of the universal model rooted in physical reality, so as to grasp the essence and essence of the problem. In 1952, Yang Zhenning and his collaborators published three articles

Important papers on phase transition. The first is his paper on the spontaneous magnetization of the two-dimensional Ising model, which was independently completed the previous year, and the critical index of 1 / 8 is obtained. This is the most lengthy calculation Yang Zhenning has ever made. Ising model is the most basic but very important model in statistical mechanics, but its importance in theoretical physics was not widely recognized until the 1960s. In 1952, Yang Zhenning also cooperated with Li Zhengdao to complete and publish two papers on phase transition theory. The two articles were submitted and published at the same time, which aroused Einstein's interest. In this paper, the analytical properties of the giant partition function are studied by analytical continuation method. It is found that the distribution of its roots determines the equation of state and phase transition properties, which eliminates people's doubts about the existence of different thermodynamic phases under the same interaction. The climax of these two papers is the unit circle theorem in the second paper, which points out that the zero point of the giant partition function of the attractive interacting lattice gas model lies on the unit circle on a complex plane.

  Boson multibody problem

Originated from his interest in liquid helium superfluid, Yang Zhenning published or completed a series of papers on rarefied boson many body systems with his collaborators around 1957. First, he cooperated with Huang kesun and Luttinger to publish two papers on the application of pseudopotential method in this field. During the period of waiting for the experimental results after writing the paper on whether parity is conserved in weak interaction, Yang Zhenning and Li Zhengdao first obtained the correct ground state energy correction by using the double collision method, and then obtained the same results as Huang kesun and Li Zhengdao by using the pseudopotential method. The most surprising energy correction they got was the famous square root correction term, but it could not be verified by experiments at that time. However, this correction term has been experimentally confirmed with the development of cold atomic physics.

  Yang Baxter equation

In the 1960s, the attempt to find a model with off diagonal long program led Yang Zhenning to the strict solution of quantum statistical model. In 1967, Yang Zhenning discovered dimension 1 δ The fermion quantum many body problem in the functional repulsive potential can be transformed into a matrix equation, which is later called the Yang Baxter equation (because Baxter also found this equation in another problem in 1972). In 1967, Yang Zhenning also wrote an article published the following year to further explore the S-matrix of this problem. Later, it was found that Yang Baxter equation is a very important equation in mathematics and physics, which is closely related to kink theory, braid group, Hopf algebra and even string theory. The one-dimensional fermion problem discussed by Yang Zhenning later became very important in the experimental study of cold atoms, and the nested bethe hypothesis method invented by him in this paper was used by Lieb and Wu fayue to solve the one-dimensional Hubbard model the next year. Hubbard model later became the basis of many theoretical studies of high temperature superconductivity.

  1D δ Exact solutions of bosons in functional repulsive potential at finite temperature

  1969年,杨振宁和杨振平将1维δ函数排斥势中的玻色子问题推进到有限温度。这是历史上首次得到的有相互作用的量子统计模型在有限温度(T>0), this model and results have been experimentally implemented and verified in cold atomic system.

  Theoretical explanation of flux quantization in superconductors

In 1961, through close communication with Fairbank experimental group, Yang Zhenning and Byers theoretically explained the magnetic flux quantization of superconductors found by the experimental group, proved that electron pairing can lead to the observed phenomenon, clarified that there is no need to introduce new basic principles about electromagnetic field, and corrected the mistakes of London reasoning. In this work, Yang Zhenning and Byers applied gauge transformation techniques to condensed matter systems. Related physics and methods were later widely used in the research of superconductivity, superfluid, quantum Hall effect and so on. [89]

  Off diagonal long program

In 1962, Yang Zhenning put forward the concept of "off Di angular long range order", so as to uniformly describe the essence of superfluid and superconductivity. At the same time, he also deeply discussed the root of flux quantization. This is a key concept of contemporary condensed matter physics. From 1989 to 1990, Yang Zhenning found the eigenstates with off diagonal long programs in the Hubbard model closely related to high temperature superconductivity, andZhang ShoushengIts so (4) symmetry is found.

  Parity non conservation in weak interaction

Symmetry is an important embodiment of the beauty of physics and one of the main themes of theoretical physics in the 20th century. From classical physics and crystal structure to quantum mechanics and particle physics, symmetry analysis is a powerful tool in physics. Yang Zhenning's many contributions to particle physics show that he is good at symmetry analysis. He can often make accurate use of symmetry, get results quickly with elegant methods, and highlight the essence and cleverness. In 1999, at an academic conference in Stony Brook, Yang Zhenning was called "Lord of symmetry".

In 1950, Yang Zhenning's paper on P0 decay and his relationship with tiomno β His thesis on phase factor in decay established his leading position in this field. In 1956, θ-τ At that time, it was widely discussed whether parity could not be conserved. Yang Zhenning and Li zhengdaocong θ-τ The specific physical problem of the mystery has moved to a more general problem. It puts forward the possibility that "parity is conserved in strong interaction and electromagnetic interaction, but may not be conserved in weak interaction". It is independent of the decay process dominated by weak interaction. After specific calculation, it is found that there is no experiment to prove whether parity is conserved in weak interaction. They also pointed out several key experiments of weak interaction to test whether parity is conserved in weak interaction. In the summer of 1956, Wu Jianxiong decided to do one of the several experiments they pointed out about 60Co β Decay experiment. In January of the following year, her experimental group proved that parity was indeed not conserved in weak interaction, which caused a great shock in the whole physics community. Because of this work, Yang Zhenning and Li Zhengdao won the 1957 Nobel Prize in physics.

  Three discrete symmetries: time inversion, charge conjugation and parity

Because of the preprint of the paper questioning whether parity is conserved in weak interaction, oehme wrote to Yang Zhenning in August 1956 to put forward the relationship between parity (P), charge conjugation (c) and time inversion (T) in weak interaction. This led Yang Zhenning, Li Zhengdao and oehme to publish a paper 57e to discuss the relationship between P, C and t. This paper plays a decisive role in the theoretical analysis of CP non conservation in 1964.

  Theoretical discussion on high energy neutrino experiment

In 1960, in order to get more information about weak interaction experiments, experimental physicists were usedSchwartzLi Zhengdao and Yang Zhenning theoretically discussed the importance of high-energy neutrino experiment. This is the first theoretical analysis of neutrino experiment, which leads to many important research works later.

  Phenomenological framework of CP non conservation

In 1964, after the experiment found that CP was not conserved, many articles guessed its root. Yang Zhenning and Wu Dajun ignored those theoretical guesses divorced from reality, made a phenomenological analysis of CP non conservation, and established a phenomenological framework for later analysis of such phenomena. This reflects Yang Zhenning's down-to-earth style and clearly shows the influence of Fermi.

  Yang mills gauge field theory

In 1954, Yang mills gauge field theory (i.e. non Abelian gauge field theory) was published. This theory, which was not valued by the physics circle at that time, developed into a new theory through the concept of spontaneous symmetry breaking introduced by many scholars from the 1960s to the 1970sstandardModel. This is generally regarded as the total achievement of basic physics in the second half of the 20th century.

From a mathematical point of view, the paper by Yang Zhenning and mills is an extension of Abelian gauge field theory describing electromagnetism to non Abelian gauge field theory. From a physical point of view, it is this generalization that develops new basic rules of interaction.

Among the four basic interactions that dominate the world, weak electric interaction and strong interaction are described by Yang mills theory, and Einstein's general theory of relativity, which describes gravity, is similar to Yang mills theory. Yang Zhenning called this "symmetrical dominant force". Yang mills theory is a great physical achievement in the second half of the 20th century. Yang mills equation, Maxwell equation and Einstein equation have an extremely important historical position.

  Integral form of gauge field theory

Yang mills theory also pushed the relationship between physics and mathematics to a new level. Around 1970, Yang Zhenning devoted himself to studying the integral form of gauge field theory, found the importance of non integrable phase factor, and realized that gauge field has profound geometric significance.

  Correspondence between gauge field theory and fiber bundle theory

In 1975, Yang Zhenning and Wu Dajun published a paper 75c, which gave an overall description of electromagnetism and Yang mills field theory with the concept of non integrable phase factor, discussed AHARONOV Bohm effect and magnetic monopole, and revealed that the gauge field corresponds to the connection on the fiber bundle geometrically. There is a "dictionary" attached to this article, which accurately "translates" the basic concepts of gauge field theory in physics into the basic concepts of fiber bundle theory in mathematics. This dictionary aroused widespread interest in mathematics and greatly promoted the successful cooperation between mathematics and physics in the next few decades.

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180.129.194. * published at 11:10 on September 27, 2021

It would be nice to come back when he was young. After all, his motherland trained him and sent him out to study and achieve

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