I extracted these 10 golden ways to maintain the brain from these 240000 word books

Last week, I started a new book "brain repair", which is from the perspective of brain science,explainSome common humanpsychologyAnd mental problems, such as anxiety, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorderSocial fear, addictive symptoms, etc. I shouted after reading. For most people, they want to fully understand the brain in the bookmechanismAnd principles are very difficult, but after each chapter in the book, we list someshouldCultivate correctthinkingAnd living habits, so as to improve our learning andWorksheetNow.

From these thoughts and living habits, I extracted 10 ways to "maintain" my braingoldMethods to share with you.

1. Good sleep

Many people don't pay attention to sleep.

People's neglect of sleep often comes from a big misunderstanding, that is, sleeping is a waste of time, or justworkRest after.

In fact, sleep is the most critical part of the dayactivityone of.

As early as 2012bostonOrganized sleepmeetingA study published on the Internet found that,long-termSleep timeaveragePeople who sleep less than 6 hours a day have a lower risk of stroke than those who can sleep 7 to 8 hours a nightriskIncreased by 4.5 times.

When you sleep, your body will not onlysystemThrough regulation, 1 / 5 of the blood in the body will flow into the brain to help the brain perform some tasks that are crucial to our survival. Sleep can help us clear the brain of raw materials produced by one day's physiological activitiesmatterGarbage, and consolidate our day's learning andmemory

So, how long should people sleep?

An adult needs 7 ~ 9 hours of normal sleep a day, and teenagersneed8 ~ 10 hours of sleep, children need more sleep. Old people because of sleepqualityFall, sleep less.

How can I have a good sleep?

① Sleeping pills

Taking sleeping pills can't effectively solve the problem of insomnia, because sleeping pills don'twaypromoteDepthMore sleep, and even reduce the time of deep sleep.

If you take sleeping pills continuously for a long time, you may be dependent on sleeping pills. Once you stop taking sleeping pills, the quality of sleep will be worse.

② Melatonin

Melatonin is a hormone that makes animals feel sleepy. The secretion of this hormone increases with the surrounding environmentlightAnd gradually increase, so as to help the brain enter the sleep state.

But melatonin doesn't help usimproveSleep, its main function is to regulate the sleep rhythm and help us enter the sleep state.

③ Regular aerobic exercise contributes to sleep

A nation in the United Statesgeneral surveyThe researchers surveyed 2600 people aged 18 to 85. The results showed that moderate and high-intensity exercise for two and a half hours a week could improve the sleep quality of 65% of people, compared with people who rarely exerciselong-termPeople with exercise habits are less sleepy during the day.

Low intensity and long-term exercises are basically aerobic exercises, such as fast walking, jogging, long-distance slow swimming and slow ridingDrivingWait.

④ Correct living habits can improve sleep

Ray: if you've just finished readingcomputerTurn off the light and go to bed, then you may toss and turn in bed for a long time to fall asleep. To fall asleep in time, you can try to dim the indoor light a few hours before going to bed, reduce the blue light entering the eyes and help the brain secrete enough melatonin.

Diet: don't eat a lot three hours before going to bed. If you feel hungry, you can eat a small amount of starchfoodTo increase sleepiness.

Get up at the same time every day: we can'tcontrolThe time to fall asleep, but can control the time to wake up. Force yourself to get up at the same time every day, and try to keep a regular routine every day, which can make your body and brain have rules to follow, and the day and night rhythm of your brain will gradually stabilize.

2. Regular aerobic exercise

Aerobic exercise refers to the exercise of aerobic metabolism during exercise, which corresponds to anaerobic exercise. It refers to the exercise of anaerobic metabolism during exercise.

The comparison is as follows:

Common aerobic exercises include: fast walking, jogging, swimming, cycling, rope skipping, boating, basketball, etc

Common anaerobic sports include: weight lifting, box jumping, squatting, box jumping, explosive jumping, sprint of various sports (long jump, sprint, swimming, etc.).

Aerobic exercise has the following benefits:

It can reduce the anxiety of the brain;
Delay brain aging;
Improve the concentration of the brain;
Can help the body detoxify;

From today on, you can start to increase your usual amount of aerobic exercise,ensureThe total number of exercise hours per week is 3 ~ 10 hours.

3. Healthy diet

The importance of healthy diet is self-evident. Here we focus on the "land" mentioned by the author in the bookZhonghaiDiet.

Mediterranean dietstructureIncluding eating less saturated fat (pork fat and beef fat), more fish, avocado and other unsaturated fat and vegetable fatmatterOil (such as olive oil), eat more non starch plants and low sugar fruits, drink more milk and reducefoodSugar intake.

Published in New England in 2013Medical ScienceA study in the journal found that the Mediterranean diet can significantly reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseaseincidence rate

In addition,demographicMartha Claire·Morris(Martha Clare Morris) also invented an MIND DIET, which is rich in berries, vegetables, whole grains and nuts, which can significantly reduce the incidence rate of Alzheimer's disease.

4. Supportive social networking

A survey of 40000 people in Norway showed that one personfeelThe more social support you receive, the less likely you are to suffer from depression.

Social interaction of different age groupsdemandDifferent sources:

Children and adolescents rely more on the support of their parents, while adults rely more on the support of their spouses, followed by the support of their families and friends.

Nowadays, communication between people has become more convenient than ever, but at the same time, more and more people are suffering from“Social phobia”。

yesSocial anxietyThe number of people with disabilities accounts for about 100%population5%, that is, almost 1 in 20 people may have social anxiety disorder.

People with "social phobia" have obvious fear, anxiety or avoidance of becoming the focus of attention or their carefully observed social scenes.

Genetic factorspsychologyFactors and environmental factors together cause social anxiety.

The treatment of social anxiety is introduced in the last part.

5. Meditate

Research from Massachusetts General Hospital shows that continuous meditation practice can make the brain responsiblememoryandemotionRegulation, introspection and compassion increased the density of cortical gray matter and decreased the density of tonsil gray matter that produced stress in the brain.

In one study, after eight weeks of meditation training,perceptionabilityObviously increased and the pressure decreased.

How to practice simple meditation?

firstscholarPractice usually begins with focused meditation. During the practice of concentration meditation, the practitionerneedholdbe carefulForce on a specific object, such as breathing or candlelight. In order to maintain concentration, practitioners need to monitor their concentration all the timetargetTo avoid distraction and wishful thinking.

When the meditator becomes familiar with the concentration skills and can easily maintain concentration, he can upgrade the practicemindfulness Meditate.

At this stage, the purpose of meditation becomes to monitor yourselfconsciousnessState, to remain focused on any experience around you, without deliberately selecting, judging or focusing on any specific experiencematterBody.

You can start with 5 minutes each time. After you become more and more used to meditation practice, the time of each practice can be gradually increased to 10 minutes, 20 minutes and 30 minutes. Pay attention to finding a quiet time and environment to practice, so as not to be disturbed.

6. Learn a second language

Learning a second language can significantly delay the development of the braincognitionThe rate of decline.

People who master two languages at the same time are called bilinguals. They have Alzheimer's disease at a younger age than people who speak only one languageaverageIt can be postponed for four years.

When is the best time to learn a second language?

There are two main areas of our brain responsible for language function, one is called Broca area and the other is called Wernicke area.

Broca district directormachiningSyntax, grammar and sentencesstructure。 Patients with physical damage in this area will suffer from "expressive aphasia". The main performance is the inability to speak fluent and grammatical sentences.

Wernicke district is responsible for the understanding of the input languagework。 Damage to this area can lead to people's inability to understand written and spoken language, resulting in“feelSexual aphasia.

Scientists have found that the first few years after birth are anthropologyLearning languageA critical period.

If you learn a second language in the critical period of language, the brain will use Broca area and Wernicke area for language processing at the same time. The second language and the first language learned at this stage will be equally proficient.

If you learn a second language after puberty, the brain will only use Broca's area to process the new language, and the proficiency will be inferior to the first language.

Now the key to learning a second language in academiawindowHow long will it lastHow big?Age is still controversial. A conservative estimate is that it is more appropriate to learn a second language before the end of puberty after mastering the first language.

7、reasonTreat addictionbehavior

Addiction is desire, not happiness.

For a long time, many people have described dopamine as the source of adult pleasure, but brain science research tells us that dopamine is not what people call "happy molecule".

Role of dopamineactuallyIt's simple. Dopamine in the reward circuit, one is the reward that acts on ussystem, let us have desire; Second, let the brain anticipate rewards and guide us to make corresponding behaviors.

In short, the role of dopamine is to "make you want" and let you actively choose behaviors that can get more rewards. Dopamine has little to do with happiness.

Gao Xiaosong once said: many people can't tellclearThoughts and desires,idealWhen you think about it, you are happy; Desire is that when you think about it, you are painful. And this desire is the secretion of dopamine.

Addiction is very much like forming habits. Once our habits are formed, they are difficult to change.

Most people's understanding of addictive behavior is too narrow. They think that addiction refers to drug abuse, alcoholism and gambling. In fact, people are addicted to all kinds of things, such asmobile phone, games, social platforms, etc.

Addiction is not as mysterious and terrible as people think. Although addiction can lead to bad behavior, it can also be used for good. If you have bad addictive behavior, the solution is to find yourself a beneficial reward behavior to replace it.

You can try to observe your daily lifeworkAddiction in learningbehavior, looklong-termThe result is good or bad. If your addictive behavior will lead to bad results, try to replace the object of pathological addiction with the object of positive addiction.

8. Remain curious

Curiosity is the beginning of all progress and the maintenance of the braincreative abilityThe key to success.

Published in neuroscience and biology in 2018matterA paper in the behavioral review found that curiosity in old age helps preventcognitive ability And physical decline.

How to keep curiosity?

The author of curiosityGeorge Mason UniversityofPsychologyprofessorTodd Kashdan made three suggestions:

① Exercise stimulates curiosity. Persistent exercise energyimproveOne person'semotion, and good mood is a necessary condition to stimulate curiosity.

② Powerfulinterpersonal relationshipIt stimulates curiosity. Having a secure relationship is likelabelThere is a base camp in the game, which makes people less constrained and more free to explore.

③ The most effective way to stimulate curiosity isknowStrangers, exploring new placesacceptNew ideas. New experiences or new experiences you haveknowledgeThe more, the more you realize that you have too little, which makes further exploration more attractive.

9. Reservedleisure

In 2001, there was a new concept in brain science called "default mode"network”。

When people do nothing, the brain also consumes a lot of energy, and some brain regionsactivityInstead, it strengthened. These areas that enhance activity are the brain's default pattern network.

What is the meaning of the default mode network?

You may have such an experience: the first day is still a puzzle. After a good sleep that night, it suddenly opens up the next day.

tencentIt's said in biographypony ofDecision style, Ma Huateng did little or almost nothing on the same daypolicy decision, he always waits until the next day.

This is the default mode network at work.

When we sleep, walk, or even take a bath, our brains turn on the default mode network (provided we don't want anything).

It will transmit what we receive without our perceptioninformationFilter, connect and reconnectcombination, for the seemingly unsolvable problem, under the action of the default mode network, we may be suddenly enlightened.

If a person is as busy as an ant on a hot pot all day, and he doesn't even have time to go to the bathroom and drink water, what he does must be a small thing, not a small thingneedThinking all dayMechanicsJust do it. Real thinking must take time and work hard.

There is a saying that the best way to destroy a person is to make him too busy to think.

I think so.

10. Understand a littleCognitive behavioral therapy

Cognitive behavioral therapy is currentlydeveloped countryThe most widely used and relatively effectivepsychotherapymethod,

The main purpose of this treatment is to teach the patient to recognize the negativity in the mindMode of thinking, let the patientknowIt is these negative ways of thinking that lead to anxiety and other discomfort.

Simply put, it'sPsychological consultation teacherstayConsultation processGuide one's ideas to a higher levelreasonIn the direction of, help this person no longer avoid the occasions that once caused his anxiety.

Behind cognitive behavioral therapyModelyesemotionofABC theoryEmotional ABC theoryBy the United StatespsychologistEllisCreate a theory.
This theory holds that stimulating event a only triggers emotion and emotionbehaviorThe indirect cause of consequence C, while the direct cause of C isindividualResponse to firing event acognitionAnd evaluationbeliefB。
That is, humanNegative emotionsAnd behavior disorder result (c) is not directly caused by a certain excitation event (a), but directly caused by the wrong belief (b) generated by the individual experiencing the event's incorrect cognition and evaluation.

Many times, it's not the thing itselfdecisionIt is our actions, but our views on things. Cognitive behavioral therapy is to help us find the "B" and then take a more reasonable "B" to replace it.

Write at the end

Well, these are the 10 tips for maintaining the brain introduced todaygoldMethods are:

1. Good sleep
2. Regular aerobic exercise
3. Healthy diet
4. Supportive social networking
5. Meditate
6. Learn a second language
7. Rational view of addictive behavior
8. Remain curious
9. Reservedleisure
10. Understand a littleCognitive behavioral therapy

I wish you always have a young brain!

reference material:
Brain repair, by Yao Nailin.
Know: the difference between aerobic exercise and anaerobic exercise

Statement: This article only represents the author's point of view, not the position of MBA think tank.
Hou Sheng Chen

Introduction to the author: Chen housheng, former professional manager of Fortune 500, contract author of famous platforms such as MBA think tank & Business News, founder & CEO of Dayu consulting, personal growth coach and target management expert., WeChat official account: ID:ccl2019-00.