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Wonderful review of "expert empowerment": carbon peak and carbon neutralization and China's energy structure adjustment

August 24, 2021 15:41      Think tank Business School      Reading volume:

   According to the data of the World Meteorological Organization, the global atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration rose to a new high in the past 800000 years in 2019. Climate change is a global problem facing mankind. With the sharp increase of greenhouse gas emissions in various countries, it affects the safety of life system. Therefore, China puts forward the goals of "carbon peaking" and "carbon neutralization". This is both an arduous challenge and a rare opportunity for the "big carbon emitters" - the traditional energy industry.


At 20:00 on August 13, the live broadcast of expert empowerment series of [cloud lecture hall of business school] was launched on time! With the theme of "carbon peak, carbon neutralization and China's energy structure adjustment", Yu Lihong, Professor of Business School of East China University of technology, was invited to share her wonderful views. The live broadcast was hosted by Ma ye, lecturer of Business School of East China University of technology. What are the highlights of this live broadcast? Let's review it together!


Part I

1. What are "carbon peak" and "carbon neutralization"? Why put forward the "double carbon goal"?

The so-called "carbon peak" refers to that after the annual total carbon dioxide emission reaches the historical maximum in a certain period, it enters the platform period first, fluctuates within a certain range, and finally enters the stage of steady decline. The length of its period mainly depends on the country's economic growth rate. When the economic growth changes from quantity to quality, the growth rate of carbon emissions begins to slow down and reach the peak. "Carbon neutralization" simply means that enterprises, groups or individuals offset their own carbon dioxide emissions through industrial structure adjustment, energy conservation and emission reduction, forest carbon sequestration and CCS technology.

China put forward the "double carbon goal", on the one hand, to ensure the implementation of the requirements of the Paris Agreement; On the other hand, because of the increasing energy, resources and environmental constraints facing China's economic growth, we must transform to a green development mode.

2. What is the current situation of China's carbon emissions? What are the challenges to achieving the "double carbon goal"?

At present, China's carbon emission ranks first in the world, and its carbon intensity is also higher than the global average. According to the data of 2019, in China's greenhouse gas emissions, power generation and heating accounted for 42.2% and industrial manufacturing accounted for 38.9%, that is, the main sources of China's carbon emissions are energy production and industrial energy consumption, and overcapacity is common in the seven energy consuming industries of petrochemical, chemical, iron and steel, nonferrous metals, non-metallic, electric power and building materials, Backward process technology and equipment.

Therefore, how to improve the proportion of high-tech industry in equipment manufacturing industry, improve the position of manufacturing industry in the global value chain and realize the optimization of industrial structure is a major challenge we are facing. On the other hand, it is difficult for the domestic energy structure to significantly reduce the proportion of coal in a short time, and the energy utilization efficiency is low. Therefore, how to use energy efficiently and cleanly is also one of the challenges to achieve the "double carbon goal". In addition, China is less than 10 years away from the commitment of "carbon peak" and only 39 years away from the realization of "carbon neutralization". The time for carbon emission reduction is short and the task is arduous. It is a long way to build a new paradigm for development.


Part II

1. How to achieve the carbon emission reduction target by optimizing the industrial structure?

In general, what we call "optimizing the industrial structure" refers to the structural adjustment among the three industries. As for the internal structure of industry, there are generally two main solutions: first, reduce the proportion of high energy consuming industries and enhance the carbon emission reduction of high energy consuming industries; Second, increase the proportion of equipment manufacturing or high-tech industries. Especially for high energy consuming industries, carbon emission reduction should be carried out - eliminating backward production capacity, improving energy efficiency and realizing fuel substitution (de coal).

2. How to optimize the energy structure and improve energy efficiency?

As the fundamental policy to achieve the "double carbon goal", the method to optimize the energy structure is in a word: supply side cleaning and consumer side electrification. That is, promote the efficient and clean utilization of coal, develop new energy such as wind power and optoelectronics, increase the proportion of nuclear power generation, and improve clean power solutions in industry, transportation, construction, household and other fields.


Part III

1. What is the way out for coal power?

According to the energy law of the people's Republic of China (Draft for comments) issued by the National Energy Administration in April 2020, it defines a path to promote the transformation and upgrading of the coal power industry in the future, that is, to develop clean, safe and efficient thermal power generation and related technologies, and promote cogeneration and cogeneration according to local conditions.

It should be noted that there are still some difficulties and challenges in the efficient and clean utilization of coal: 1. In terms of capital, the investment in upgrading and technological transformation is huge, and the cost problem can be solved by raising electricity price and levying carbon tax; 2. In terms of technology, there is still a gap between China's high-temperature material welding and the world's advanced level, so it is necessary to strengthen R & D and improve the efficiency of thermal power generation; 3. In terms of policy, at present, the price of coal and electricity is low and there is no power to implement fuel substitution at the consumer end. We should continue to increase the cost of coal and make it lose its economy.

2. Can nuclear power lift the beam?

On the whole, nuclear power has the advantages of low cost, no greenhouse gas emission during production and small environmental impact factors. Therefore, nuclear power can replace fossil energy on a large scale, develop in coordination with renewable energy such as wind, light and water, and build a clean, low-carbon, safe and efficient modern energy system. However, China's nuclear power production is still restricted by technology, raw materials, safety and other aspects.


3. Why does Fengguang new energy develop slowly?

At present, the coexistence of high installed capacity and low power generation of wind and solar power generation in China is mainly due to the mismatch between domestic energy supply and demand and the fact that wind and solar resources are subject to geographical and climatic conditions, which lead to the phenomenon of abandoning wind and light. In addition, from the policy level, the price subsidy of wind power is about to withdraw, and the allocation of wind power industry and photovoltaic industry begins to gradually rely on market competition. These are the factors affecting the development of wind power new energy. The development of Fengguang new energy is actually the main measure to achieve the "double carbon goal".


In the future, we should plan the power supply system as a whole and incorporate it into the overall plan of power development; Expand carbon emissions trading and implement the quota system for renewable energy such as scenery; Develop decentralized wind and electricity resources and improve the consumption efficiency of wind and electricity; Increase R & D efforts and tackle key technologies such as transportation, storage and utilization.


Part IV

What is the main path of carbon emission in transportation in the future?

In the field of transportation, highway transportation is an industry with high carbon emission. It is urgent to further promote the development of new energy vehicles. In addition to policy support (green card priority, subsidy, double point management, market synergy, etc.), we need to continuously optimize the layout of infrastructure and improve the adequacy and utilization rate of charging facilities; Realize the self ownership of core technologies, especially in battery R & D (resource acquisition, safety improvement and fuel cost reduction).


Reprint source: brand Department of Business School of East China University of Technology






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Business School of East China University of Technology
Business School of East China University of Technology
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